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optical properties and photothermal performance of gnrcu2-xse heterostructures. (a-e) optical absorption spectra of gnrcu2-xse heterostructures prepared with (a) ctab, (b) ctac, (c) pvp, (d) pss and (e) pdda capping agents in the presence of 0.28 mm (wine curve), 0.56 mm (blue curve) and 1.12 mm (red curve) seo2. optical absorption spectra of the corresponding gnrse hybrids prepared with 1.12 mm seo2 (black curve) are shown as well for each type of capping agent. insets in each panel are optical photographs of aqueous suspensions of capping agent-modified gnrs, gnrse hybrids and gnrcu2-xse hybrids prepared with 1.12 mm seo2. four plasmon bands are labeled as plasmon bands i, ii, iii and iv.
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the photothermal conversion efficiency of the gnrcu2-xse hybrids was evaluated by measuring the temperatures of the aqueous solutions of the hybrids in the presence of 808 and 1064 nm lasers, respectively. the laser was adjusted to center the laser spot on the aqueous solutions of the gnrcu2-xse hybrids and completely cover the entire aqueous solutions. the laser power density was set at 1.0 w/cm2 for 808 nm and 1.0 w/cm2 for 1064 nm. the temperature was recorded over the time of laser irradiation by an flir a35 infrared thermal camera. the real-time temperatures were recorded and plotted against the irradiation time.
to evaluate the nir-ii photothermal ablation of cancer cells, mda-mb-231 cells were seeded in 24-well plates at a density of 5.0104 cells/well and incubated at 37 c in a 5% co2 incubator for 12 h. then, the culture media were replaced with 100 l of the dmem medium containing gnrs (100 g/ml), cu2-xse ncs (200 g/ml) or gnrcu2-xse hybrids (100 g/ml for gold), followed by incubation for another 12 h. afterwards, the cells were rinsed with pbs and then exposed to irradiation of a 1064 nm laser for 5 min at a power density of 1.0 w/cm2 with the 5 cm-distance between the laser and the cells. after that, the cells were rinsed with pbs and the cell viability was evaluated by the cck-8 assay. the cells without the laser irradiation but with all other conditions identical were used as a control.